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This FULL-ON Bell Labs 16mm film was produced with MIT and is presented in luxurious Kodachrome! Absolutely the definition of Bell Labs Films in the heart of the transistor era, you can really chew on this gorgeous piece of Edu-tainment. This reel was transferred from my own 16mm archive print using my Eiki Telecine. The Eiki projects a 24fps print at 30 frames per second for a flickerless NTSC transfer. A special diffusion plate eliminates the 'hot spot' of the projector, and the sound is pulled right from the optical track. Enjoy!
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By Fran

17 thoughts on “Transistor structure: bell labs (1965)”
  1. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Phill Maf says:

    The photodiode audio playback is super quality. I collected loafs of 8,super 8 and 16mm films years s ago ,along with loads of projectors. In the end I binned it all but somehow miss the clatter of frame gates and fine dust.
    Ahh I love the smell of burning dust in projector lamps in the morning. Don't get too carried away with old film Fran. Take up tennis or punk rock or experiment with drugs.
    My favourite old super eight reel was called Crazy Wrestling, an old b and w with women wrestlers,people wrestling in ice and fish . This was obviously before the days of the net . I d love the discovery of buying blind an old cardboard box of films on a junk market. I get straight home , draw the curtains ,flick the projector on and review my finds. Fran ,you is fekin weird, and all the better for it. Ciao ciao Bella ciao.

  2. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars fuzzyguy210 Bright says:

    My dad worked for Western Electric. He gave me a number of the early germanium transistors still sealed in the foil packages. I have them somewhere in the old family home.

  3. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Bree Valente says:

    Does the semiconductor phenomena of rectifying current, controlling current etc hold up on a macro scale? Can you build a transistor 100 ft in size?

  4. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars M3SNU says:

    That’s a great transfer Fran. When I’ve tried transferring my 8mm home movies to my computer I always get the bright hotspot in the middle of the picture. I’ve eliminated the flickering using a variable speed projector. Any tips to get rid of the the hotspot in the middle of the the captured image?

  5. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars LarsKaufbach says:

    This is great! And who would have thought that Woody Harrelson made documentaries before movies and tv shows. Already had his receding hairline at the age of 4.

  6. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Bobatron says:

    This video is amazing, from Germanium chips to Silicon with all the maths. Its even more amazing that this is basically how we still create transistors with just differences in mask layouts, doping concentrations, and materials!

  7. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Tamashii M. H. says:

    This was worth the watch from top to bottom. My knowledge of transistors was very very rusty and this just refreshed what I saw at college.
    Thanks Fran for uploading these!

  8. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Scott H says:

    I took physical electronics in college. Taught by an incompetent grad student who spent most of his time correcting his errors. Made understanding it near impossible.
    Wish these guys had taught the class.
    Thanks Fran, was interesting to understand it better.

  9. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Liora Baranes says:

    Whom Can We Trust If No One Is Trustworthy?
    One of my favorite quips from Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is when Tom is defined as “a glittering hero…the pet of the old, the envy of the young,” and there were “some that believed that he would be President, yet, if he escaped hanging.” With these few words, Twain captured the essence of leadership in our world. Those who get to the top are the fiercest, most determined, and most ruthless. Today, the latter quality has become so intense that we can no longer believe our leaders, and certainly not trust them to have our best interest in mind.
    I am not accusing any leader in particular, or even leaders as a whole. It is simply that in an egoistic world, where people vie to topple one another on their way to the top, the one at the top is clearly the one who trampled over and knocked down more people than anyone else. Concisely, to get to the top in an egoistic world you have to be the biggest egoist.
    So how do we know whom to trust? We don’t know and we cannot know. All we know is that we are in the dark.
    In a culture of unhinged selfishness, any conspiracy theory seems reasonable, while truth is nowhere to be found. When every person who says or writes something is trying to promote some hidden agenda, you have no way of knowing who is right, what really happened, or if anything happened at all.
    The only way to get some clarity in the news and goodwill from our leaders is to say “Enough!” to our current system and build something entirely independent. The guiding principle of such a system should be “information only,” no commentary. Commentary means that information has already been skewed. Information means saying only what happened, as much as possible, not why, and not who is to blame and who we should praise.
    Concurrently, we must begin a comprehensive process of self-teaching. We have to know not only what is happening, but why we skew and distort everything. In other words, we have to know about human nature and how it inherently presents matters according to its own subjective view, which caters to one’s own interest. To “clear” ourselves from that deformity, we must learn how to rise above our personal interest and develop an equally favorable attitude toward others. This is our only guarantee that our interpretation of things will be even and correct.
    Once we achieve such an attitude, we will discover that the bad things we see in our world reflect our own, internal wickedness. Our ill-will toward others creates a world where ill-will governs, and so the world is filled with wickedness and cruelty. Therefore, all we need in order to create positive leadership—and to generally eliminate ill-will from the world—is to generate goodwill within us. When we nurture goodwill toward others, we will fill the world with goodwill. As a result, the world will fill with kindness and compassion. By changing ourselves, we will create a world that is opposite from the world we have created through our desires to govern, patronize, and often destroy other people.

  10. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars volvo09 says:

    Now this is cool!

    My grandmother and grandfather met at a bell factory, doing hand assembly. They retired in the early 90's, the plant was making phone switch board modules i believe.

    Gives me that happy nostalgic feeling… 🙂

  11. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Marcel Huguenin says:

    Frantastic! Wonderful to watch, thank you Fran. I hope the people in the video have been able to see many years later how the technology has evolved.

  12. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Matthew Brown says:

    …for some reason my search for knowledge has led me here. Looks real, doesn't look culturally eroded, and makes sense. My quest goes on…

  13. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars René Schmitz says:

    The epitaxial diffusion process might just be as significant as the invention of the transistor itself. In essence it is still used for semiconductor manufacturing to this day.

  14. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars SeanBZA says:

    The other curse of junction alloy transistors is that they are all doomed to fail short circuit, as the junctions slowly diffuse further into the base region, and the gain goes up, and the breakdown voltage drops, till they eventually meet in the middle. The cause of many an old Germanium transistor amplifier blowing fuses, the output devices get warm from use, and slowly heat themselves to their doom. At least the diffused ones would take a lot longer to diffuse through, and are still likely to work, but all the alloy transistors are either leaky, or just shorted.

    However, they do work well to show that a transistor is totally symmetrical, as the gain is almost the same, irrespective of which lead you use as emitter or collector, the gain is very similar, and they will work in both directions as an amplifier. Just the reverse connection has lower breakdown voltage. You even get special heavily doped transistors ( not made any more) where the reverse gain is actually higher than the other way round, which had some very niche applications.

  15. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars CandidDate says:

    It just amazes me that humankind has progressed to such a level! There are definitely strains of chemistry, mathematics, and most importantly atomic theory involved in this process all culminating in the mastery of nature. Or at least the part of nature that humankind has control over. But, in the end both nature and humankind must work in balance as we march forward on this never-ending quest for the future.

  16. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Make-A-Woosh-Foundation says:

    I think it's great that you just upload the footage.
    I'd appreciate your commentary on each of these in another video, tho. a little about whatever you can find out and just your general thoughts…

    if you split Fran's archive off, the commentary could stay on the main channel.

  17. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Scuba Bro says:

    Wow! I actually saw this in high school AP physics class as part of “discover electrical engineering” week! It motivated me to study microelectronics and pursue RF microcircuit design (GaN and GaAs) and MMIC’s… looking back on it now this “boring” video in HS my teacher made us watch ended up being the motivating starting point for my future career and college research.

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